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System Administration Commands                        ufsdump(1M)

     ufsdump - incremental file system dump

     /usr/sbin/ufsdump [options] [arguments] files_to_dump

     ufsdump backs up all files specified by files_to_dump  (usu-
     ally either a whole file system or files within a file sytem
     changed after a certain date) to magnetic tape, diskette, or
     disk file.

     The ufsdump command can only be used on unmounted file  sys-
     tems,  or  those  mounted  read-only.  Attempting  to dump a
     mounted, read-write file system might  result  in  a  system
     disruption  or the inability to restore files from the dump.
     Consider using the fssnap(1M) command to create a file  sys-
     tem  snapshot  if  you  need a point-in-time image of a file
     system that is mounted.

     options is a single string of one-letter ufsdump options.

     arguments may be multiple strings whose association with the
     options  is determined by order. That is, the first argument
     goes with the first  option  that  takes  an  argument;  the
     second  argument  goes  with the second option that takes an
     argument, and so on.

     files_to_dump is required and must be the last  argument  on
     the command line. See OPERANDS for more information.

     With most devices ufsdump can automatically detect the  end-
     of-media.  Consequently,  the  d,  s,  and t options are not
     necessary for multi-volume dumps, unless  ufsdump  does  not
     understand  the  way the device detects the end-of-media, or
     the files are to be restored on a system with an older  ver-
     sion of the restore command.

     The following options are supported:

     0-9                     The "dump level." All  files  speci-
                             fied by files_to_dump that have been
                             modified since the last ufsdump at a
                             lower  dump  level are copied to the
                             dump_file  destination  (normally  a
                             magnetic tape device). For instance,
                             if a "level 2" dump was done on Mon-
                             day, followed by a "level 4" dump on
                             Tuesday, a subsequent "level 3" dump
                             on Wednesday would contain all files
                             modified or added since  the  "level
                             2" (Monday) backup. A "level 0" dump
                             copies the entire file system to the

     a archive_file          Archive file. Archive a dump  table-
                             of-contents    in    the   specified
                             archive_file   to   be    used    by
                             ufsrestore(1M)  to determine whether
                             a file is in the dump file  that  is
                             being restored.

     b factor                Blocking factor. Specify the  block-
                             ing  factor  for  tape  writes.  The
                             default is 20 blocks per  write  for
                             tapes  of  density less than 6250BPI
                             (bytes-per-inch). The default block-
                             ing  factor  for  tapes  of  density
                             6250BPI  and  greater  is  64.   The
                             default  blocking  factor  for  car-
                             tridge tapes (c option) is 126.  The
                             highest  blocking  factor  available
                             with most tape drives is 126.  Note:
                             the  blocking factor is specified in
                             terms of 512-byte blocks, for compa-
                             tibility with tar(1).

     c                       Cartridge. Set the defaults for car-
                             tridge   instead   of  the  standard
                             half-inch reel. This sets  the  den-
                             sity  to  1000BPI  and  the blocking
                             factor to  126.  Since  ufsdump  can
                             automatically   detect  the  end-of-
                             media, only the  blocking  parameter
                             normally  has  an  effect. When car-
                             tridge  tapes  are  used,  and  this
                             option  is  not  specified,  ufsdump
                             will slightly miscompute the size of
                             the  tape.  If  the  b,  d,  s  or t
                             options  are  specified  with   this
                             option,  their  values will override
                             the defaults set by this option.

     d bpi                   Tape density. Not normally required,
                             as  ufsdump can detect end-of-media.
                             This parameter can be used to keep a
                             running  tab  on  the amount of tape
                             used per reel. The  default  density
                             is  6250BPI except when the c option
                             is used for cartridge tape, in which
                             case it is assumed to be 1000BPI per
                             track. Typical values for tape  dev-
                             ices are:

                             1/2 inch tape

                                 6250 BPI

                             1/4 inch cartridge

                                 1000 BPI The tape densities  and
                                 other  options are documented in
                                 the st(7D) man page.

     D                       Diskette. Dump to diskette.

     f dump_file             Dump file. Use dump_file as the file
                             to  dump  to, instead of /dev/rmt/0.
                             If dump_file is specified as -, dump
                             to standard output.

                             If the name of the file  is  of  the
                             form  machine:device,  the  dump  is
                             done from the specified machine over
                             the  network  using  rmt(1M).  Since
                             ufsdump is normally run by root, the
                             name   of  the  local  machine  must
                             appear in the /.rhosts file  of  the
                             remote   machine.  If  the  file  is
                             specified  as   user@machine:device,
                             ufsdump  will  attempt to execute as
                             the specified  user  on  the  remote
                             machine.  The  specified  user  must
                             have a .rhosts file  on  the  remote
                             machine  that allows the user invok-
                             ing  the  command  from  the   local
                             machine   to   access   the   remote

     l                       Autoload. When  the  end-of-tape  is
                             reached before the dump is complete,
                             take the drive offline and  wait  up
                             to two minutes for the tape drive to
                             be ready again. This gives autoload-
                             ing   (stackloader)  tape  drives  a
                             chance to load a new  tape.  If  the
                             drive  is  ready within two minutes,
                             continue. If it is not,  prompt  for
                             another tape and wait.

     L string                Sets  the  tape  label  to   string,
                             instead  of the default none. string
                             may be no more than sixteen  charac-
                             ters  long.  If  it is longer, it is
                             truncated and a warning printed; the
                             dump  will  still  be done. The tape
                             label is  specific  to  the  ufsdump
                             tape  format,  and  bears  no resem-
                             blance to IBM or ANSI-standard  tape

     n                       Notify  all  operators  in  the  sys
                             group  that  ufsdump requires atten-
                             tion by sending  messages  to  their
                             terminals,  in  a  manner similar to
                             that used by the  wall(1M)  command.
                             Otherwise,  such  messages  are sent
                             only to the terminals (such  as  the
                             console)  on  which the user running
                             ufsdump is logged in.

     N device_name           Use   device_name   when   recording
                             information  in  /etc/dumpdates (see
                             the u  option)  and  when  comparing
                             against        information        in
                             /etc/dumpdates    for    incremental
                             dumps.  The device_name provided can
                             contain no white space as defined in
                             scanf(3C) and is case-sensitive.

     o                       Offline. Take the drive offline when
                             the  dump is complete or the end-of-
                             media  is  reached  and  rewind  the
                             tape,  or eject the diskette. In the
                             case of some autoloading 8mm drives,
                             the  tape  is removed from the drive
                             automatically. This prevents another
                             process  which  rushes in to use the
                             drive, from inadvertently  overwrit-
                             ing the media.

     s size                  Specify the size of the volume being
                             dumped to. Not normally required, as
                             ufsdump  can  detect   end-of-media.
                             When  the specified size is reached,
                             ufsdump waits for you to change  the
                             volume.   ufsdump   interprets   the
                             specified size as the length in feet
                             for tapes and cartridges, and as the
                             number  of  1024-byte   blocks   for
                             diskettes.  The  values  should be a
                             little smaller than the actual  phy-
                             sical  size  of the media (for exam-
                             ple, 425 for a 450-foot  cartridge).
                             Typical   values  for  tape  devices
                             depend on the  c  option,  for  car-
                             tridge devices, and the D option for

                             1/2 inch tape

                                 2300 feet

                             60-Mbyte 1/4 inch cartridge

                                 425 feet

                             150-Mbyte 1/4 inch cartridge

                                 700 feet


                                 1422 blocks  (Corresponds  to  a
                                 1.44-Mbyte  diskette,  with  one
                                 cylinder reserved for bad  block

     S                       Size estimate. Determine the  amount
                             of  space  that is needed to perform
                             the dump without actually doing  it,
                             and  display the estimated number of
                             bytes it will take. This  is  useful
                             with  incremental dumps to determine
                             how many volumes of  media  will  be

     t tracks                Specify the number of tracks  for  a
                             cartridge    tape.    Not   normally
                             required,  as  ufsdump  can   detect
                             end-of-media.   The   default  is  9
                             tracks. The t option is not compati-
                             ble  with  the  D option. Values for
                             Sun-supported tape devices are:

                             60-Mbyte 1/4 inch cartridge     9

                             150-Mbyte 1/4 inch cartridge    18

     T time_wait[hms]         Sets the amount of time to wait for
                             an  autoload  command  to  complete.
                             This option is ignored unless the  l
                             option  has also been specified. The
                             default time period to wait  is  two
                             minutes.  Specify  time units with a
                             trailing h  (  for  hours),  m  (for
                             minutes),  or  s  (for seconds). The
                             default unit is minutes.

     u                       Update the dump record. Add an entry
                             to the file /etc/dumpdates, for each
                             file system successfully dumped that
                             includes  the  file  system name (or
                             device_name as specified with the  N
                             option), date, and dump level.

     v                       Verify. After each tape or  diskette
                             is  written,  verify the contents of
                             the media against  the  source  file
                             system.  If any discrepancies occur,
                             prompt for new  media,  then  repeat
                             the  dump/verification  process. The
                             file system must be unmounted.  This
                             option  cannot  be  used to verify a
                             dump to standard output.

     w                       Warning. List the file systems  that
                             have  not  been  backed  up within a
                             day.  This  information  is  gleaned
                             from  the  files  /etc/dumpdates and
                             /etc/vfstab. When the  w  option  is
                             used, all other options are ignored.
                             After   reporting,   ufsdump   exits

     W                       Warning with highlight.  Similar  to
                             the  w  option,  except  that  the W
                             option  includes  all  file  systems
                             that appear in /etc/dumpdates, along
                             with information  about  their  most
                             recent  dump  dates and levels. File
                             systems that have not been backed up
                             within a day are highlighted.

     The following operand is supported:

     files_to_dump   Specifies the  files  to  dump.  Usually  it
                     identifies  a  whole  file system by its raw
                     device       name       (for        example,
                     /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s6). Incremental dumps (lev-
                     els 1 to 9) of files changed after a certain
                     date  only  apply  to  a  whole file system.
                     Alternatively,  files_to_dump  can  identify
                     individual  files  or directories. All named
                     directories that may be examined by the user
                     running  ufsdump, as well as any explicitly-
                     named  files,  are  dumped.  This  dump   is
                     equivalent  to  a  level 0 dump of the indi-
                     cated portions  of  the  filesystem,  except
                     that  /etc/dumpdates  is not updated even if
                     the -u option has  been  specified.  In  all
                     cases,  the  files  must be contained in the
                     same file system, and the file  system  must
                     be  local  to  the  system  where ufsdump is
                     being run.

                     files_to_dump is required and  must  be  the
                     last argument on the command line.

     If no options are  given,  the  default  is  9uf  /dev/rmt/0

     See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior of ufs-
     dump  when  encountering  files  greater  than or equal to 2
     Gbyte ( 2**31 bytes).

     Example 1: Using ufsdump

     The following command makes a full dump of a root file  sys-
     tem on c0t3d0, on a 150-MByte cartridge tape unit 0:

     example# ufsdump 0cfu /dev/rmt/0 /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s0

     The following command makes and verifies an incremental dump
     at  level  5  of  the usr partition of c0t3d0, on a 1/2 inch
     reel tape unit 1,:

     example# ufsdump 5fuv /dev/rmt/1 /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s6

     While running, ufsdump emits many verbose messages.  ufsdump
     returns the following exit values:

     0        Normal exit.

     1        Startup errors encountered.

     3        Abort - no checkpoint attempted.

     /dev/rmt/0              default unit to dump to

     /etc/dumpdates          dump date record

     /etc/group              to find group sys

     /etc/hosts              to gain access to remote system with

     /etc/vfstab             list of file systems

     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |

     cpio(1), tar(1), dd(1M), devnm(1M), fssnap(1M), prtvtoc(1M),
     rmt(1M),    shutdown(1M),    ufsrestore(1M),    volcopy(1M),
     wall(1M), scanf(3C), attributes(5), largefile(5), st(7D)

  Read Errors
     Fewer than 32 read errors on the file system are ignored.

  Process Per Reel
     Because each reel requires a new process,  parent  processes
     for  reels  that  are  already written hang around until the
     entire tape is written.

  Operator Intervention
     ufsdump requires operator intervention on these  conditions:
     end  of volume, end of dump, volume write error, volume open
     error or disk read error (if there are more than a threshold
     of 32). In addition to alerting all operators implied by the
     n option, ufsdump interacts with the operator  on  ufsdump's
     control  terminal  at  times  when  ufsdump  can  no  longer
     proceed, or if something is  grossly  wrong.  All  questions
     ufsdump  poses  must  be  answered  by  typing yes or no, as

     Since backing up a disk  can  involve  a  lot  of  time  and
     effort,  ufsdump checkpoints at the start of each volume. If
     writing that volume fails for  some  reason,  ufsdump  will,
     with operator permission, restart itself from the checkpoint
     after a defective volume has been replaced.

  Suggested Dump Schedule
     It is vital to perform full, "level  0",  dumps  at  regular
     intervals.  When  performing  a full dump, bring the machine
     down to single-user mode using shutdown(1M).  While  prepar-
     ing  for  a  full  dump, it is a good idea to clean the tape
     drive and heads. Incremental dumps should be performed  with
     the system running in single-user mode.

     Incremental dumps allow for convenient backup  and  recovery
     of  active files on a more frequent basis, with a minimum of
     media and time. However, there are  some  tradeoffs.  First,
     the  interval  between  backups  should be kept to a minimum
     (once a day at least). To  guard  against  data  loss  as  a
     result of a media failure (a rare, but possible occurrence),
     capture active files on (at least) two sets of dump volumes.
     Another  consideration  is  the  desire  to keep unnecessary
     duplication of files to a minimum to save both operator time
     and  media  storage.  A third consideration is the ease with
     which a particular  backed-up  version  of  a  file  can  be
     located  and  restored.  The  following  four-week  schedule
     offers a reasonable tradeoff between these goals.

                   Sun    Mon    Tue    Wed    Thu    Fri
         Week 1:   Full    5      5      5      5      3
         Week 2:           5      5      5      5      3
         Week 3:           5      5      5      5      3
         Week 4:           5      5      5      5      3

     Although the Tuesday  through  Friday  incrementals  contain
     "extra  copies"  of  files  from Monday, this scheme assures
     that any file modified during the week can be recovered from
     the previous day's incremental dump.

  Process Priority of ufsdump
     ufsdump uses multiple processes to allow it to read from the
     disk  and write to the media concurrently. Due to the way it
     synchronizes between these processes,  any  attempt  to  run
     dump  with  a nice (process priority) of `-5' or better will
     likely make ufsdump run slower instead of faster.

  Overlapping Partitions
     Most disks contain one or more  overlapping  slices  because
     slice  2  covers  the  entire  disk. The other slices are of
     various sizes and usually do not  overlap.  For  example,  a
     common  configuration  places root on slice 0, swap on slice
     1, /opt on slice 5 and /usr on slice 6.

     It should be emphasized that ufsdump dumps one ufs file sys-
     tem  at  a  time. Given the above scenario where slice 0 and
     slice 2 have the same starting offset, executing ufsdump  on
     slice  2  with  the  intent of dumping the entire disk would
     instead dump only the root file system on slice 0.  To  dump
     the entire disk, the user must dump the file systems on each
     slice separately.

     The /etc/vfstab file does not allow the desired frequency of
     backup for file systems to be specified (as /etc/fstab did).
     Consequently, the w and W options assume file systems should
     be  backed  up  daily,  which limits the usefulness of these